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Feline Panleucopenia (FPV) in Cats

Feline Panleucopenia is an acute highly infectious and contagious viral disease caused by Parvovirus affecting intestinal epithelium, hemopoeti and lymphoid tissues of domestic cats. The disease is characterized by rapid onset, biphasic fever, distinct leucopenia, vomition and diarrhea leading invariably to death. This is also called as feline distemper, feline infectious enteritis and feline agranulocytosis.

Incidence

The disease has a worldwide distribution affecting most of the domestic cats and wild felids like wild cats, jagaur, leopard, lion, tiger, etc. The incubation period varies from 2-10 days.

Etiology

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses belonging to the family Parvoviridae, which is thermostable and resistant to wide variety of physical and chemical agents.

Transmission

  • Direct contact or through fomites as the virus is present in all secretions of the affected animals.
  • Transplacental infection can also occur.
  • Clinical Signs

    There is rapid onset of the disease associated with vomition of blood tinged ingesta mixed with frothy mucus.The common signs are-

  • Biphasic feverand anemia
  • Profuse and persistent blood tinged diarrhea
  • Depression and blindness
  • In peracute cases, the affected animals may die suddenly without exhibiting any cllinical signs, while in chronic cases, the disease may be prolonged with persisstent diarrhea, dehydration and death. If the cat survives for 48 hours, its chances for recovery are much better.

    Pathology

    The carcass were invariably dehydrated and the blood was dark and tarry in colorand thick in consistency. The mucosa of the entire iintestinal tract was hyperaemic but the ileum and colon were covered with diptheritic membrane.

Diagnosis

  • ELISA test to detect antibodies
  • Virus isolation
  • Parvo Dipstick Test (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium) for detection of parvo virus in fecal sample.
  • Leucopenia particularly agranulocytes.
  • Rapid onset and febrile reaction.

Specimens to be sent to Lab

  • Fecal sample or rectal swabs for virus isolation and Parvo Dipstick Test.
  • Heparanised whole blood for leucopenia
  • Intestinal pieces, lymphnode, spleen and bone marrow in 10 % formol-saline separately.

Prevention and Control

In endemic areas the kittens are vaccinated with Fel-O-Vax PCT (Feline rhinotracheitis-calci-panleucopenia) killed vaccine. This vaccination should be done at the age of 8-10 weeks (1ml subcutaneously). Two doses are given with one month interval followed by revaccination annually.

Treatment

The vet will give symptomatic non-specific treatment to minimise the clinical signs of Feline Panleucopenia. Although there is no specific treatment for the disease, anti-emetics and electrolytes can be administered to check dehydration and vomition along with a course of broad spectrum antibiotics to contain secondary bacterial infection.

 

For Further readings:-

Help prevent the spread of FIV~ please neuter your cat